Chart of New York City Area Native Plants for the Garden


• TREES

• SHRUBS

• WOODY VINES

• WILDFLOWERS

• FERNS

• GRASSES, SEDGES, & RUSHES

KEY
Sun: F = Full, P = Part, S = Shade
Moisture: D = Dry, A = Average, W = Wet
Other Comments:

A = needs/tolerates acid soil (pH<6.5), Bi= attracts birds, Bu = attracts butterflies and/or their caterpillars,

C = colonial (vegetative reproduction), CUT = good as cut flowers, DY = flowers/fruits good for dried arrangements, D = dioecious (sexes on different plants) – install 1
male for every 4-5 females, E = evergreen,
F = fall color, G = groundcover, H = attracts hummingbirds,
T = attractive bark/trunk, W = high wildlife value
TREES TREES TREES TREES TREES TREES TREES
Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Comments Other Species
Red Maple Acer rubrum F-P D-W 40-75′ (F) crimson; early red flowers in spring; CUT
Striped Maple or Moosewood Acer pensylvanicum P-S A 15-20′ T (light stripes);

F (yellow); A

Acer spicatum
Sugar Maple Acer saccharum S A 80′ F (orange); maple syrup
Paw Paw Asimina triloba P-S A-W 40′ F(orange); C; unique fruit that resembles and tastes
like banana
River Birch Betula nigra F A-W 40-70′ F (yellow); Bi, T (peeling layers, salmon color);
popular in hort trade
Gray Birch Betula populifolia F-P A 30′ C; fast growing, short-lived; CUT; T(white w/ black
markings); F(yellow)
Betula alleghaniensis, B. papyrifera,
Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana F-S A-W 20-30′ T (muscular, smooth), F (red-orange); ornamental
catkins with papery bracts, DY; Bu
Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata F-P A 70-90′ F (yellow to golden brown); Bi; butterfly larval
plant
Carya glabra, C. cordiformis, Juglans cinerea
Hackberry Celtis occidentalis F-P D-W 50-75′ F (yellow); T (gray smooth to textured); Bi; butterfly
larval plant
Eastern Redbud Cercis canadensis F D 15-25′ Pink pea-like blooms in spring along twigs and branches,
CUT; T (smooth, dark)
There are also white flowered forms.
Fringetree Chionanthus virginicus F-P A 20′ D; Delicate fragrant white flowers, spring. Female
plants have small, dark blue fruits like olives; CUT; Bi
Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida S A 25-30′ White (or pink) flowers in spring; CUT; T(square
plates); Bi, fruit imp for fall migrant birds
Cornus alternifolia,

C. rugosa

Common Persimmon Diospyros virginiana F-P A-W 30-50′ F(yellow, orange); T (black w/ square furrows); edible
fruits; Bu
American Beech Fagus grandifolia S A 50-75′ T (smooth, gray); Bi; tiered branches cast deep shade
White Ash Fraxinus americana F-P A 60-80′ F(yellow, maroon, purple); Bu Fraxinus pennsylvanica
American Holly Ilex opaca F-P D-A 20-40′ Broad leaved E; D; Bi, T (smooth, gray); CUT
Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus virginiana F-P D-A 30-40′ Good for screening; E; Bi; W
Sweet Gum Liquidambar styraciflua F-S A-W 60-100′ F(orange, scarlet, purple); fruit persistent prickly
balls
Tulip Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera F A 40-100′ H; Bu; Showy, tri-colored flowers in May, CUT
Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana P-S A-W 20-30′ Large, creamy, lemon-scented flowers all summer,
CUT; popular hort plant
Black Gum Nyssa sylvatica F-P A 40-60′ Good architecture; F (orange, red, purple); Bi
Pitch Pine Pinus rigida F D 80-100′ E; rapid growth; Bi; Tolerates drought Pinus echinata, P. resinosa
Eastern White Pine Pinus strobus F-P A to 200′ Long, soft, flexible needles; long female cones;
CUT; popular ornamental; Bi
American Sycamore Platanus occidentalis F-P A-W 70-100′ T (white & green mottled); Street trees are different
species – London plane trees
Large Tooth Aspen Populus grandidentata F D-W 50-70′ Fast growing, F; leaves flutter in wind Populus deltoides, P. tremuloides
White Oak Quercus alba F-P D 60-100′ Brown, red, wine F; Bi; W Quercus bicolor for wet areas
Scarlet Oak Quercus coccinea F-P D 75′ Brilliant scarlet F; rapid growth; Bi; W Quercus rubra, Q. velutina, Q. palustris for wet areas
Chestnut Oak Quercus prinus P A 60-70′ Acorns; T (dark w/ deep furrows); Dry, thin soils;
W
Post Oak Quercus stellata F D 60′ Acorns; T (shaggy, blocky); Common in Pinelands;
W
Quercus marilandica
Sassafras Sassafras albidum F-P D-A 30-60′ Small, fragrant yellow flowers in spring; Fragrant
leaves shaped like mittens; F(orange, pink, scarlet); attractive dark blue
fruits in fall, Bi; CUT; W
Basswood Tilia americana P-S A-W 60-80′ Heart-shaped leaves; honey from nectar; CUT; W
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SHRUBS SHRUBS SHRUBS SHRUBS SHRUBS SHRUBS SHRUBS
Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Comments Other Species
Bottlebrush Buckeye Aesculus parviflora F-S A 4-8′ C; Large leaves; White spire of flowers in summer;
slow growing
Aesculus glabra
Smooth Alder Alnus serrulata F-S W 15-20′ F(yellow, orange); Bi, DY; C Alnus rugosa
Downy Serviceberry Amelanchier

arborea

F-P D-A 15-25′ Yellow-orange-red F, white flowers April CUT; edible
fruits, Bi
Amelanchier canadensis, A. laevis
Red Chokeberry Aronia arbutifolia F-P W-A 5-10′ White flowers spring, CUT; dark green leaves; bright
red fruit; F(scarlet, orange); C
Aronia melanocarpa
Groundsel Tree Baccharis halimifolia F-P W 3-10′ White flower heads; plumed seeds in fall Iva frutescens
New Jersey Tea Ceanothus americanus P-S A 2-3′ Clusters of small white-flowers in summer; CUT; deep
purple fruits in fall, Bi
Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis F-P A-W 3-8′ Emergent in shallow water; fragrant, globe-like blooms;
Bu
Leatherleaf Chamaedaphne calyculata F-P W 3′ A; E; C; Flowers white, spring; Bu
Sweet Pepperbush Clethra alnifolia F-P A-W 2-4′ C; White fragrant blooms in summer, CUT; butterfly
larval plant; popular hort plant
Sweet Fern Comptonia peregrina F D 4′ A; prostrate, aromatic; C; D;
Red-osier Dogwood Cornus sericea F-P A-W 3-10′ White flowers in spring, CUT; twigs, berries turn
red in fall; Bi
Cornus amomum, C. racemosa for
drier sites
American Hazelnut Corylus americana F-S A 12-15′ Edible nuts; Bi; C Corylus cornuta
Cockspur Hawthorn Crataegus crus-galli F D-A 20-30′ White flowers in spring, CUT; red fruit in sum, Bi;
red F
Crataegus uniflora, C. coccinea, C. mollis
Bush Honeysuckle Diervilla lonicera S D 3′ C; fast growth; Yellow & red flowers in summer,
H, CUT; NYC near the southern limit on East coast
Lonicera canadensis
Leatherwood Dirca palustris P A 6′ Slow growing; Flowers pale yellow, April; F(soft
yellow); attractive architecture in winter
Strawberry-bush Euonymus americanus S A 7′ Striking red fruit capsule in fall, CUT
Black Huckleberry Gaylussacia baccata P-S D-A 1-3′ Black fruits in summer, edible, Bi; C; A; Bu; W Gaylussacia frondosa, G. dumosa
Witchhazel Hamamelis virginiana P-S D-A 8-20′ Multi-stemmed shrub, vase shape with fan-like branches
and smooth gray bark. Unusual yellow flowers in fall, CUT; Bi
False Heather Hudsonia tomentosa F D 12″ A; prostrate, E; showy yellow flowers in summer;
G
Hudsonia ericoides
Wild Hydrangea Hydrangea arborescens P A 3-5′ A; C; fast growth; Large, dark green leaves; Showy
pink & white flowers in summer, CUT; DY
Shrubby St. Johnswort Hypericum prolificum F D-A 3′ Twiggy habit; Flowers buttercup yellow for 3-4 weeks.
Easy to please shrub
Hypericum hypericoides, H. stans, H. densiflorum
Inkberry Ilex glabra P-S A 4-8′ Broad leaved E; C; D; Bi. Nearly identical to the
exotic Ilex crenata
Winterberry Holly Ilex verticillata F-P D-A 6-15′ Large deciduous leaves; Clusters of bright red berries
on female plants in winter, Bi; D; CUT; very popular horticultural plant
Ilex laevigata
Virginia Willow Itea virginica F-P D-W 3-6′ White blooms early summer; F(red, orange, maroon)
Dwarf Juniper Juniperus communis F D 6′ E, aromatic; Bi; G
Mountain Laurel Kalmia latifolia F-P D-W 9′ Showy, fragrant white flower clusters; broad-leaved
E; C; A; CUT
Kalmia angustifolia
Fetterbush Leucothoe racemosa, syn. Eubotrys r. F-P A-W 3-13′ Small, white, bell-shaped flowers late spring; C;
A; CUT
Spicebush Lindera benzoin P-S A-W 8-15′ Yellow blooms in early spring; leaves fragrant; F(yellow);
Bu (esp for Spicebush Swallowtail)
Maleberry Lyonia ligustrina F-P A-W 6-12′ Small, white flowers in June; F; A; C; CUT Lyonia mariana
Northern Bayberry Myrica pensylvanica F D-A 5-8′ Semi-evergreen; transplants well; leaves & berries
fragrant; Bu; DY; Bi
Myrica cerifera
Shrubby Cinquefoil Potentilla fruticosa F A-W 3′ Showy yellow flowers mid-summer
Beach Plum Prunus maritima F D-A 10′ White fragrant flowers in spring, CUT; purple edible
fruit, Bi; T (black, good architecture); Bu
Prunus americana
White Laurel Rhododendron maximum P-S A-W 6-10′ Light pink, fragrant, showy flowers in May; H; C;
A; CUT
Pinkster Azalea Rhododendron periclymenoides F-P A 6-10′ Fragrant white flowers in late spring, H; dark green
leaves, open habit; A; CUT
Rhododendron atlanticum
Swamp Azalea Rhododendron viscosum P A-W 5-8′ F(red & gold); attractive red fruit cluster persists
in winter, DY, Bi; CUT
Ledum groenlandicum,

Rhododendron canadense

Staghorn Sumac Rhus typhina, syn. R. hirta F D 9-15′ C; D; F(red-orange); Female plants bear showy red
fruit clusters showy in late summer that persist through winter, Bi; DY
Rhus aromatica, R. copallinum, R. glabra
Dogberry Ribes cynosbati F-P A-D 5′ Stems often prickly, growth rate moderate to fast;
F(yellow to purple); fruit fleshy, pale red, prickly, late summer, Bi
Ribes hirtellum

(thornless), R. rotundifolium

Climbing Prairie Rose Rosa setigera F A 13′ Climbing, thorny; white & pink, fragrant flowers
in June; deep green compound leaves; red hips (winter), Bi; F; CUT
Prairie Rose Rosa carolina F A 4-6′ Pink, fragrant flowers in June; deep green compound
leaves; thorns; red hips (winter), Bi; F; CUT
Rosa palustris, Rosa virginiana, R. blanda
Common Blackberry Rubus allegheniensis F-P D-A 6′ Thorny; growth rate fast, C; white flowers summer;
edible black fleshy fruit in late summer; Bi
Rubus occidentalis,

R. flagellaris, R. hispidus

Flowering Raspberry Rubus odoratus P A 6′ Thornless; C; fast growth rate;

Maple-shaped light gray-green leaves. Flowers purple, showy, summer; CUT

Pussy Willow Salix discolor F A-W 6-15′ A lovely sign of spring – the silvery catkins on
the male plants; D; Bu; CUT; DY
Salix humilis
Elderberry Sambucus canadensis F-P A-W 5-10′ Divided leaves; white flowers in early summer; C;
growth rate fast. Fruit fleshy, black, late summer; Bi
Meadowsweet Spiraea alba F A-W 5′ C; A; Flowers pink,

showy, summer, CUT; Bu. Tough, resilient, fast growing

Spiraea alba var.

latifolia

Bladdernut Staphylea trifolia P A 15′ 3-parted leaves; ornamental papery “bladder”
contains seeds in the fall, DY
Canada Yew Taxus canadensis P-S D-A 6′ E; slow growth; Red, fleshy fruit, Bi; Long Island
is southern limit on the east coast.
Highbush Blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum F-P A 6-12′ F(red); edible fruit, Bi; A; CUT; W
Cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon F W 6″ Trailing, E, edible fruit, Bi; A Vaccinium oxycoccos
Early Lowbush Blueberry Vaccinium pallidum F-P D-A 24″ Small white bell-shaped flowers in late spring; edible
fruits in summer; F, A; CUT
Vaccinium angustifolium, V. stamineum
Maple-leaf Viburnum Viburnum acerifolium F-P D-A 6′ Pie-shaped clusters of creamy-white flowers; F; CUT;
dark blue fruits in fall, Bi
Viburnum dentatum
Hobblebush Viburnum alnifolium P-S A 6′ C; Showy, flat clusters of creamy-white flowers;
F; CUT; purple fruits in fall, Bi. Southern limit is Sussex Co, NJ &
Westchester Co, NY
Possumhaw Viburnum nudum P-S W 5-20′ Clusters of small white-flowers in summer; CUT; dark
blue fruits in fall, Bi
Viburnum lentago
Black Haw Viburnum prunifolium F-P A-W 8-15′ Creamy-white flowers in spring; dark blue fruits
in fall, Bi
Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum americanum P-S A 25′ D; Stems prickly, aromatic; tolerates calcareous
soils; W
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WOODY VINES WOODY VINES WOODY VINES WOODY VINES WOODY VINES
Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Comments Other Species
Bearberry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi F D 6″ C; E; G Fast-creeping mat; F (bronzy red); small
white flowers in late spring; red fruit late summer that persists into winter;
Bu; One of our finest groundcovers and most adaptable species
Dutchman’s Pipe Aristolochia

macrophylla

F-S A 6-30′ Well-behaved woody vine grown for large, shady foliage;
Bu; Must be supported
Trumpet Creeper Campsis radicans F-P D-A 20-40′ Shiny dark green, divided leaves; Orange flowers;
H; fast growth; can be aggressive
American Bittersweet Celastrus scandens P A 20′ DY, CUT, Fast growing climber; Yellow & orange
capsules in fall, persist in winter, Bi. (Asian bittersweet, a very destructive
invasive vine, is C. orbiculatus).
Purple Clematis Clematis occidentalis F-P A-W 6′ Semi-woody climber; C; fast growth; Large, drooping,
satiny leaves (may irritate skin); Flowers violet, showy, spring, CUT; ornamental
seed heads in fall, DY
Clematis virginiana (virgins bower)
similar to the Asian
C. terniflora. Flowers white, profuse. Too aggressive for most gardens.
Trumpet Honeysuckle Lonicera sempervirens F-P A 15-25′ Red/yellow trumpet-shaped flowers, H; red berries,
Bi; one of the longest flowering native plants
Lonicera dioca
Moonseed Menispermum canadense F-P D-A 12′ A; C; G; Dark blue berries, poisonous to humans;
W
Partridgeberry Mitchella repens P-S D-A 8″ Creeping carpets; E; G; Small white flowers in summer;
scarlet red berries all winter
Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia F-P A 30-50′ Excellent red F; blue berries in fall; Bi; fast growth,
can be aggressive; G
Catbrier Smilax glauca P-F D-A 10-20′ Thorny vine with small fragrant flowers; Bi Smilax rotundifolia,

S. herbacea

Fox Grape Vitis labrusca P A 35′ C; fast growth; Shreddy, reddish-brown bark; Edible,
dark purple fruits in fall; Bi
Vitis aestivalis,

Vitis riparia

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WILDFLOWERS WILDFLOWERS WILDFLOWERS WILDFLOWERS WILDFLOWERS
Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Comments Other Species
Doll’s Eyes Actaea alba, A. pachypoda P-S A 32″ Showy white berries on bright purple stems in summer.
Plant poisonous
Actaea rubra
Ramps, Wild Leek Allium tricoccum P-S A 12″ Broad, strappy leaves preceed flowers; tuber edible;
spring ephemeral
Allium canadense
Yellow Giant Hyssop Agastache nepetoides F-P D-A 3-8″ Light yellow flowers in late summer, Bu; fast growth;
DY
Agastache

scrophulariifolia, Teucrium canadense

Blue Star Amsonia tabernaemontana F-P A-W 2′ Light blue flowers in May above broad green leaves;
DY; F(yellow, orange); easy garden plant
Rue Anemone Anemonella thalictroides P-S A 6″ Upright white blooms aloft delicate foliage; spring
ephemeral; C
Anemone quinquefolia, A. canadensis
Field Pussytoes Antennaria neglecta F-P D-A 6″ Semi-evergreen mat of gray-green leaves, G; small
white flowers like cotton swabs in spring; larval food plant of American
Lady butterfly, Bu
Antennaria plantaginifolia
Wild Columbine Aquilegia canadensis F-P D-A 1-2.5′ Unique red and yellow flowers, H; Finely textured
foliage; popular garden plant
Jack-in-the-Pulpit Arisaema triphyllum P-S A 12+” Unusual flowers in Mar-May; red berries late summer-fall
Wild Ginger Asarum canadensis P-S A 6″ Large, heart-shaped leaves; G
Swamp Milkweed Asclepias incarnata F A-W 12-36″ Pink flowers summer, CUT; Bu; larval food plant of
Monarch butterflies, Bu; DY
Asclepias purpurascens
Butterfly Weed Asclepias tuberosa F D-A 2-3′ Brilliant orange flowers, CUT; Bu, larval food plant
of Monarch butterflies, Bu; DY
Blue Wood Aster Aster cordifolius, syn. Symphyotrichum cordifolium P-S D-A 1-3′ Blue-lavender flowers in fall, Bu; fast growth Aster divaricatus, syn. Eurybia divaricata
New England Aster Aster novae-angliae, syn. Symphyotrichum n-a. F A 3-7′ Bright lavender flowers with yellow centers late
summer; Bu; CUT
Aster novi-belgii,
syn. Symphyotrichum n-b.
Smooth Blue Aster Aster laevis, syn. Symphyotrichum laeve F D 3′ Showy blue flowers in late summer; Bu; lovely blue-green
foliage; CUT
Aster spectabilis, syn. Eurybia s.; A. concolor, syn. Symphyotrichum
False Indigo Baptisia australis F-P D-A 3-6′ Blue spikes of pea-shaped flowers in spring, Bu;
3-parted leaves; slow growth; DY
Baptisia tinctoria
False Aster Boltonia asteroides F D-W 4′ Our native daisy! Tall plant with white or pink flowers
in fall
Marsh Marigold Caltha palustris F W 1-2′ Bright yellow flowers; spring ephemeral (N.B. very
similar to exotic invasive lesser celandine {Ranunculus
ficaria})
Senecio aureus
Harebell Campanula rotundifolia P D-A 8-14″ Blue bell-shaped blooms throughout growing season;
CUT
Cutleaf Toothwort Cardamine concatenata P A-W 8-16″ Terminal clusters of four-petaled white or pinkish
flowers; Bu; spring ephemeral
Cardamine diphylla
Blue Cohosh Caulophyllum thalictroides P-S A 1-2′ Blue-green toothed leaves; blue berries in cluster;
late spring flws; poisonous
White Turtlehead Chelone glabra F-P A 1-3′ Narrow, long leaves; white flowers bloom late summer,
CUT; Bu
Chelone lyonii
Green-and-Gold Chrysogonum virginianum F-P A 6-12″ Yellow blooms early spring through summer; dark green
broad leaves; C; Bu; G
Maryland Golden Aster Chrysopsis mariana F D 2-3′ Bright yellow clusters of daisy-like flowers in summer,
Bu; slow growth
Chrysopsis falcata,
syn. Pityopsis falcata
Black Cohosh Cimicifuga racemosa P-S A 3-5′ Attractive, divided leaves; Long slender candle-like
clusters of white flowers in summer, Bu
Spring Beauty Claytonia virginica F-S A 3-5′ Pink-white flowers spring; linear, strapy leaves;
spring ephemeral
Claytonia caroliniana
Bluebead Lily Clintonia umbellulata P-S A 12″ A; yellow flw spg; does well under conifers Clintonia borealis
Canada Horsebalm Collinsonia canadensis P-S A 3-4′ C; Large leaves smell of citronella; small flowers
pale yellow and sweet smelling in late summer
Tickseed Coreopsis lanceolata F-P D-A 12-36″ Gold flws on tall stems in early summer; Common in
wildflwr seed mixes
Coreopsis rosea, C. tripteris
Bunchberry Cornus canadensis P-S A 6″ A; G; Sweet, white dogwood flowers late summer above
a whorl of leaves
Pink corydalis Corydalis sempervirens F-P D-A 24″ Wintergreen annual or biennial; pink& yellow
flws, tolerates calcareous soils. Good for rock gardens
Corydalis aurea
Hoary Tick Trefoil Desmodium canescens F-P D-A 4.5′ White flws mid-summer; Bu Desmodium glutinosum, D. rotundifolium, D. viridiflorum
Dutchman’s Breeches Dicentra cucullaria S A 1′ White-yellow flowers resemble pantaloons in spring,
attractive lacy leaves; C; spring ephemeral
Dicentra canadensis
Fringed Bleeding Heart Dicentra eximia F-P A 12-18″ Attractive foliage and pink and white flowers growing
in mounds
Purple Coneflower Echinacea purpurea F D-A 3′ Large, daisy-like flowers with reflexed rose-purple
petals, Bu; Bi (goldfinches eat seeds); CUT; DY
Echinacea pallida
Fireweed Epilobium angustifolium F D-A 4-6′ Fast growth; showy, magenta flws; C; CUT; DY An excellent substitute for the noxious weed, Lythrum salicaria, purple loosestrife.
Yellow Trout Lily Erythronium americanum P-S A 3-6″ Large, six-petalled yellow flowers Erythronium albidum
Mistflower Eupatorium coelestinum, syn. Conoclinium c. F-P A 1-3′ Dense clusters of starry, periwinkle flowers late
summer, Bu; CUT
Pluchea purpurascens
Hollow Joe-Pye Weed Eupatorium fistulosum F A 3-10′ Pinkish-purple clusters above lance-like whorled
leaves, Bu (swallowtails); CUT
Eupatorium dubium, E. maculatum, E. purpureum
White Snakeroot Eupatorium rugosum,
syn. Ageratina altissima
F-P D-A 2-4′ Flat-top clusters of small white starry flowers in
fall, C; Bu; fast growth.
Eupatorium perfoliatum, E. hyssopifolium
Queen of the Prairie Filipendula rubra F-P A-W 3-7′ Airy tufts of pink flws in summer; CUT; Endangered
in the wild in our region
Fringed Gentian Gentianopsis crinita F-P A-W 3′ Biennial; Spectacular blue-violet flowers in fall,
CUT
Gentiana andrewsii, G. clausa
Wild Geranium Geranium maculatum F-S A 1-2′ 1″ lavender-purple flowers in spring and summer;
divided foliage; G
Geranium carolinianum
Sweet Everlasting Gnaphalium obtusifolium, syn. Pseudognaphalium o. F D 3′ Aromatic leaves; small, scaly white flowers in late
summer, DY; Bu
Anaphalis margaritacea
Swamp Sunflower Helianthus angustifolius F A-W 6′ Yellow flowers in late summer, Bu, CUT; DY Helianthus decapetalus, Bidens laevis
Round-lobed Hepatica Hepatica americana P-S A 6″ Delicate blue-lavender flowers in March-April. Beautiful
semi-evergreen, mottled leaves unfurl after petals have dropped. Spring
ephemeral
Hepatica acutiloba
Cow Parsnip Heracleum lanatum F-P A-W 10′ Flat, white floral panicle; wooly leaves; Bu; DY Osmorhiza claytonii,

O. longistylis

Alumroot Heuchera americana F-P A 1-3′ Grn-purp bell-shaped flwrs on leafless stalk (spr-sum),
G
Rose Mallow Hibiscus moscheutos F A 4-7′ Large, white or pink flowers in summer; CUT; DY Kosteletzkya virginica
Azure Bluet, Quaker Ladies Houstonia caerulea F-P D-W 4″ G; tiny blue flws in spring; common in lawns Houstonia longifolia, H. purpurea
Broad-Leaved Waterleaf Hydrophyllum canadense P-S A-W 20″ Purple-white flws summer Hydrophyllum virginianum
Yellow Star Grass Hypoxis hirsuta F-P D-A 6″ Grass-like leaves; 6-petaled yellow flowers in early
summer
Crested Dwarf Iris Iris cristata P-S A 16″ Sword-shaped, blue-green leaves with showy violet-blue
flowers in April; CUT; G
Iris verna
Blue Flag Iris Iris versicolor F-P W 2-3′ Sword-shaped, blue-green leaves with showy violet-blue
flowers in early summer; CUT; DY
Iris prismatica
Round-headed Bushclover Lespedeza capitata F-P D-A 4′ DY, Bu; Creamy white, pea-like flowers with a magenta
spot at base in dense, rounded heads in late summer
Lespedeza intermedia,

L. procumbens, L. repens

Rough Blazing Star Liatris aspera F-P D-A 3-5′ Spikes of pink-purple flowers late summer; CUT; Bu;
Bi (seeds); DY
Liatris pycnostachya var. pycnostachya, L. spicata
Turk’s Cap Lily Lilium superbum F A 6-10′ Whorls of lance-shaped leaves, purple-mottled stems;
in summer up to 40 showy red-orange blossoms; H; CUT; DY
Wood Lily Lilium philadelphicum F-P D-A 32″ Bright orange showy flws, CUT Lilium canadense
Sea Lavender Limonium carolinianum F A-W 12″ Delicate, blue-lavender flowers bloom in summer,
CUT; DY; Rosette of fleshy leaves
Cardinal flower Lobelia cardinalis F-P W 3-5′ Terminal clusters of bright red flowers 1.5″
long in fall
Great Blue Lobelia Lobelia siphilitica F-P A-W 1-3′ Elongated cluster of pale-dark blue flwrs late sum-fall Lobelia spicata
Seedbox Ludwigia alternifolia F-P A-W 3′ Large, 4-petaled flws; DY
Wild Blue Lupine, Sundial Lupine Lupinus perennis F-P D 12-30″ Spire of blue-violet, pea-shaped flowers, Bu; Attractive,
dissected leaves; CUT
Canada Mayflower Maianthemum

canadense

P-S A 8″ Small, oval leaves grow slowly, G; small spire of
white flowers in spring, red berries in summer
Indian Cucumber Root Medeola virginiana S A 18″ Long leaves in 2 whorls around the stem; small greenish
flowers, purple berries; late spring
Virginia Bluebells Mertensia virginica P-S A-W 1-2′ Nodding, pale blue flowers; CUT; spring ephemeral
Scarlet Bee Balm (Oswego Tea) Monarda didyma F-P A 1-3′ Minty fragrant foliage; bright red, tubular flowers;
Bu; CUT
Wild Bergamot Monarda fistulosa F-P A 1-3′ Minty fragrant foliage; violet, tubular flowers;
Bu; CUT
Monarda media
Horsemint Monarda punctata F-P A 1-3′ Minty fragrant foliage; pink-beige-purple-brown spotted,
tubular flowers; Bu; CUT
Evening Primrose Oenothera biennis F-P D-A 2-6′ Lemon colored flowers open at twilight; very hardy;
fast growth; CUT; DY
Oenothera fruticosa,

O. perennis

Prickly Pear Cactus Opuntia humifusa F-P D-A 6-18″ Beautiful yellow flowers; edible fruits & paddles;
G; Our only native cactus
Violet Wood Sorrel Oxalis violacea P-S A 16″ Showy violet flws; interesting foliage; great for
rock gardens
Allegheny Spurge Pachysandra procumbens P-S A 9-12″ Attractive foliage, two-toned leaves, G; Native to
PA and south, the one sold at nurseries is from Japan and can be invasive
Tall White Beardtongue Penstemon digitalis F-P A 30-50″ Long blooming white flowers in summer Penstemon hirsutus, P. pallidus
Summer Phlox Phlox paniculata F-P A-W 24-48″ Attractive fall flowers attract butterflies Phlox divaricata
Creeping Phlox Phlox stolonifera P-S A 6″ White, pink, violet flws; G Phlox subulata
Clammy Ground Cherry Physalis heterophylla F-P D-A 3′ C; smallish flws resemble tomato; fleshy fruits;
DY
Physalis longifolia, P. pubescens
Mayapple Podophyllum peltatum P-S A 12-18″ Tall, umbrella-like leaves; solitary white bloom
in spring; C; G
Jacob’s Ladder Polemonium reptans P-S A 1′ Terminal clusters of light blue bell-shaped flws;
easily naturalizes
Solomon’s Seal Polygonatum biflorum P-S A 2-3′ Tall, arching stems; small bell-shaped white flowers
late spring; red berries in summer. Common garden plant
Polygonatum pubescens,

Smilacina racemosa, Streptopus amplexifolius, S. roseus

Virginia Jumpseed Polygonum virginianum F-S D-A 3-4′ Large foliage, insignificant white flowers; good
as textural interest in garden
Pickerel-Weed Pontederia cordata F-P W 3′ Lustrous foliage, spike of blue flws summer; W; C
Old Field Cinquefoil Potentilla simplex F-P D-A 24″ Semi-evergreen, divided leaves; G; small yellow flowers
early summer
Potentilla anserina, P. canadensis
Hoary Mountainmint Pycnanthemum

incanum

F-P D-A 3′ Very small, white-lavender flowers, Bu; fragrant
thyme/mint leaves; DY
Pycnanthemum muticum, P. virginianum
Meadow Beauty Rhexia virginica F-P A-W 3′ Unusual 4-petaled rose flws summer Rhexia mariana
Brown-eyed Susan Rudbeckia fulgida F-P A 5′ Gold & chocolate flowers in fall, CUT; DY; Bu R. hirta, R. laciniata
Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis S A 6-10″ Showy white flowers in April; unique leaves; spring
ephemeral
Common Pitcher Plant Sarracenia purpurea F-P W 12″ A; unusual leaves collect insects for food; purple
flws in spg; found in bogs
Early Saxifrage Saxifraga virginiensis F-P D-A 4″ Small, white flws in spring; good for rock gardens;
Bu
Downy Skullcap Scutellaria incana F-P D-A 2-3′ Showy blue flowers in late summer; Bu; lovely blue-green
foliage; CUT
Scutelaria integrifolia
Fire Pink Silene virginica F-P D-A 20″ Scarlet flws in summer; H; good for rock gardens Silene caroliniana, S. stellata
Stout Blue-eyed Grass Sisyrinchium angustifolium F-P A-W 20″ Thin, grassy foliage; iris-blue flowers in early
summer
Sisyrinchium atlanticum, S. mucronatum
Bluestem Goldenrod Solidago caesia F-S D-A 1-3′ Stems are studded with clusters of tiny yellow flowers;
Bu
Solidago bicolor, S. flexicaulis
Sweet Goldenrod Solidago odora P D 1-2′ Anise-scented leaves; showy yellow floral cluster
in fall, Bu; CUT; DY
Solidago juncea,

S. nemoralis

Seaside Goldenrod Solidago sempervirens F A 1-8′ Fleshy leaves, rather large yellow flowers early
fall; CUT; DY; Bu
Solidago rugosa
Celandine Poppy Stylophorum diphyllum S A 18″ Bright green leaves with toothed margins; showy lemon-yellow
flowers in spring; spring ephemeral
Amrican Bur-reed Sparganium americanum F-P W 3′ C; grasslike; flws bur-shaped; W Sparganium eurycarpum
Skunk Cabbage Symplocarpus

foetidus

F-P A-W 2′ C; unusual flws in Feb/Mar; large, showy leaves
Virginia Spiderwort Tradescantia virginiana F-P A 18-36″ Grass-like leaves & 3-petaled violet-blue flowers
Foamflower Tiarella cordifolia P-S A 6-12″ E; G; feathery flowers spring Mitella diphylla
Wake Robin Trillium erectum S A 16″ Flowers dark red, large and showy, April-June. Spreads
slowly. Our hardiest trillium.
Trillium grandiflorum,

T. undulatum, T. cernuum

Bellwort Uvularia perfoliata P-S A 12″ Yellow, bell shaped flowers in late spring; C Uvularia grandiflora, U. sessilifolia, Disporum lanuginosum
False Hellebore Veratrum viride P-S A-W 4-6′ Grn-yellow flws spg; showy, pleated foliage
Blue Vervain Verbena hastata F-P A-W 5′ Elongated leaves; flowers blue in terminal spikes
in summer; Bu
Verbena stricta
New York Ironweed Vernonia noveboracensis F-P W 4-6′ Deep reddish purple flowers clustered in flat panicles
in late summer; Bu
CulverÕs Root Veronicastrum virginicum F A-W 6′ Spikes of light blue to white flowers, June-Sept,
Bu, CUT; easy garden plant
Cimicifuga racemosa
Birdfoot Violet Viola pedata F-P D-A 6″ Flowers lilac-violet with conspicuous orange centers
in spring, Bu; divided foliage. Good for rock gardens
Viola brittoniana
Yellow Forest Violet Viola pubescens P-S A 8″ Showy yellow flowers

early spring, Bu

Viola blanda,

V. rotundifolia

Canada Violet Viola canadensis P-S D-A 8″ White-lavender flowers early spring, Bu, G; Fast
growth
Viola rostrata, V. palmata
Barren Strawberry Waldsteinia fragarioides F-P A 8″ Creamy yellow flowers; Bu; G
Golden Alexanders Zizia aurea F-P D-A 32″ Showy yellow flowers

summer, Bu

Zizia aptera
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FERNS FERNS FERNS FERNS FERNS FERNS
Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Comments Other Species
Maidenhair Fern Adiantum pedatum P-S A 18-36″ A delicate spiral of airy leaflets on black, wiry
stems. Spreads slowly; one of our most beautiful native ferns
Lady Fern Athyrium filix-femina S A-W 18-24″ Delicate & lacy arching fronds, red stems at
maturity; slowly creeping; C, G
Hay-Scented Fern Dennstaedtia punctilobula F-P A 32″ C; G; aggressive spreader, not clump forming, leaves
sweet smelling
Toothed Wood Fern Dryopteris carthusiana P-S A-W 24″ E; grayish-green deeply cut leathery fronds; forms
clumps; C; G
Dryopteris cristata, D. clintoniana, D. goldiana
Marginal Wood Fern Dryopteris marginalis P-S A-W 18-24″ Lacy cut blue-green fronds; forms clumps; C; G Dryopteris intermedia
Ostrich Fern Matteuccia struthiopteris P-S A-W 4-6′ Large, vase-shaped clusters, persistent reproductive
fronds; C; DY
Sensitive Fern Onoclea sensibilis F-P W 12-24″ Showy reproductive fronds, a cluster of small black
beads. Does well in full sun, but keep moist, itÕs sensitive to drought;
aggressive spreader; C; G; DY
Interrupted Fern Osmunda claytoniana S A-W 3-4′ Fertile leaflets interrupt the fronds; light green
circular clusters of leaves
Osmunda cinnamomea
Royal Fern Osmunda regalis P A-W 2-5′ Bi-pinnate blade; pinnae resemble locust tree leaves;
clump forming
Common Polypody Fern Polypodium virginianum P-S A-W 12″ E; C; Easily grows on thin layers of organic soil.
Christmas Fern Polystichum acrostichoides P-S A 12-36″ E; Easy to cultivate. Attractive year-round, low
maintenance, long-lived, clump forming
Bracken Fern Pteridium aquilinum F-P D-A 2-3′ Fronds divided into 3 segments, held aloft on a wiry
stem; not clumped; aggressive spreader; C
New York Fern Thelypteris

noveboracensis

P A 18″ C; G; aggressive spreader, not clump forming.
Broad Beech-Fern Thelypteris

hexagonoptera (=Phegopteris h.)

P A 24″ C, S; Fronds nearly triangular in outline. Spreads
slowly; can form large patches in shade
Thelypteris phegopteris
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GRASSES SEDGES & RUSHES GRAMINOIDS GRAMINOIDS
Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Comments Other Species
Sideoats Grama Bouteloua

curtipendula

F D-A 30″ One sided oat-like spikes; narrow, bluish-gray leaves
in dense clump. F(golden brown, orange). Bi; CUT; DY
Blue Wood Sedge Carex flaccosperma P-S A 12″ Broad, waxy gray-green leaves; Blooms and fruits
May-June; BU
Carex plantaginea
Pennsylvania Sedge Carex pensylvanica P A 20″ Thin, long, draping clumps of leaves; Bu, C, G Carex swanii,

C. umbellata

Tussock Sedge Carex stricta F-P A-W 2-3′ Densely tufted, forming permanent, low tussocks.
Blooms and fruits May-Aug. Butterfly larval plant
River Oats Chasmanthium latifolium F-P A 48″ F (copper); DY; CUT
Common Hairgrass Deschampsia

flexuosa

P-S D-A 36″ Leaves shorter than wiry, delicate flowering stems;
DY
Three-way Sedge Dulichium arundinaceum F-P W 1-2′ Will thrive in up to 2″ standing water; resembles
short bamboo; C; BU
Virginia Wild Rye Elymus virginicus P-S D-A 3′ Distinguished by relatively stiff, erect spikes in
summer
Elymus canadensis
Bottlebrush Grass Elymus hystrix

(Hystrix patula)

F-P A 3-5′ Stems in small tufts. Blooms and fruits summer; DY
Purple Love Grass Eragrostis spectabilis F A 18-24″ Fluffy clouds of bronze-red inflorescences in fall;
CUT; DY
Eragrostis capillaris
Canada Rush Juncus canadensis F-P A-W 3′ Rapid growth; green foliage & flower
Smooth Rush Juncus effusus F-P A-W 3′ Bright green cylindrical sheath-like stems; brownish
inflorescence peeks out
Common Wood Rush Luzula multiflora F-P A 4-6″ Leaves reddish in bloom. Flowers dense early spring.
Late spring fruits, dispersed by ants
Luzula acuminata
Wire-stem Muhly Muhlenbergia frondosa F-P A 40″ Leaves dull blue-green; G; blooms fall Muhlenbergia

schreberi

Switch Panic Grass Panicum virgatum F-P D-W 4-6′ Leaves bluish green, F(gold); grows in clumps
Little Bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium F-P D-A 2-4′ F(copper, orange) in fall; CUT; DY; Bu Andropogon virginicus, A. gerardii
Wool Grass Scirpus cyperinus F W 3-5′ Clumping grass-like perennial; long, slender leaves;
wooly brown seed heads in fall; CUT
Juncus canadensis
Yellow Indian Grass Sorghastrum nutans F-P D-A 3-6′ Foliage green-blue; F(gold/orange/bronze); inflorescence
gold-brown; CUT; DY
Tall Dropseed Sporobolus asper F-P D-A 4′ Stems tufted. Blooms and fruits Aug.-Oct. Inflorescence
purplish, cylindrical
Sporobolus neglectus,

S. vaginiflorus

Eastern Gama Grass Tripsacum dactyloides F-P A-W 9′ C; Showy purple & orange flowers in summer, CUT;
Host to larva of a rare moth (Amphipoea erepta)
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